How Is The New Coronavirus In the world, there are millions of viruses that affect people, animals and plants. Let’s learn what viruses are, in general, and what characterizes the new coronavirus, in particular. Useful information on the cause of the pandemic.
It is important to know that most respiratory infections in childhood are caused by viruses. In order to know more about the new coronavirus, first, we must understand what viruses are exactly and what treatment they have.Next, we offer you information about Doctor Luis G. Trapote, pediatrician and scientific supervisor of the magazine Mi Bebé y Yo México.
Viruses are acellular microorganisms (not composed of cells), of such a small size that they cannot be visualized through a conventional light microscope. Most viruses are 100 times smaller than bacteria, so it is necessary to an electron microscope to make them visible. Viruses can infect humans, mammals, birds, plants, bacteria, and even other viruses, as they cannot live on their own.
The first virus discovered was the Tobacco Mosaic (TMV) virus. Although tobacco leaf disease had been described by A. Mayer in 1883, who noted that it could be transmitted between plants in a similar way to bacterial infections, it was not until 1939 that the first TMV images were obtained through the electron microscope , carried out by doctors G. Kausche, E. Pfankuch and H. Ruska in Germany.
The last virus discovered is a coronavirus, the 2019-nCoV, described in December 2019 in cases that occurred in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province and the most populous city (11 million inhabitants), in the central area of the People’s Republic China. This virus is the one that we will treat and call from now on as a new coronavirus or Covid-19.
An important feature is that viruses are not sensitive to antibiotics, so an attempt at treatment with these drugs is completely futile. Many viruses are capable of mutating, transforming their structure, which makes a vaccine useful only for the ongoing epidemic outbreak, having to be renewed each year according to the virus mutation. This is the case of the influenza virus.
This mutation capacity may also be the cause that a virus that usually affects animals or other living organisms can be transmitted from that organism to humans. Coronaviruses have this property, as occurred with the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) virus in 2002 and the MERS (Middle East Associated Severe Respiratory Syndrome) virus in 2012.
The first case of COVID-19 infection occurred in the Huanan market in Wuhan, where live animals such as fish, shellfish, chickens, chickens and other wild species are sold.
At the present time, the mechanism of transmission of the virus from the animal of origin to the human being is not known, nor what animal it is. The genus of the Wuhan coronavirus has not yet been cataloged, although there are similarities to the coronavirus of the betacoronavirus genus, such as the SARS and MERS viruses.
The new coronavirus is transmitted between humans by direct contact through the tiny droplets of saliva expelled by speaking, sneezing, and coughing. Likewise, there is a possibility that it can also be transmitted through one’s own hands and through objects in which viruses can remain active for hours.
It is enough for a healthy person to put their hands to their mouth, nose or conjunctiva after touching the infected object to inoculate the virus. Nor are other possible routes of infection ruled out. The COVID-19 is known to hold little outdoors, and cold and moisture keep it going longer.
The new coronavirus can be transmitted by people in the incubation period of the infection, between five and 20 days, according to the WHO, and up to 24 days, according to a study carried out by Chinese researchers, which does not occur in other coronaviruses, being very higher its contagion rate.
A Smart, Educational Look At What How Is The New Coronavirus, Covid-19 *Really* Does In Our World
In most cases, the symptoms correspond to that of a more or less striking flu process: nasal congestion, cough and fever, although this is not present at the beginning of the picture in almost half of the cases. It is also frequent to suffer headache and throat, and general malaise, typical manifestations of viral infections, as well as diarrhea and loss of appetite.
The most serious clinical situations, such as severe respiratory symptoms, with respiratory distress, atypical pneumonia or renal failure, are found in a small percentage of those infected. In general, these are patients who have a lower immune level than desirable, as occurs in the elderly or in people with a previous disease.
Boys appear much less likely to develop a severe form of the disease than middle-aged and older men. According to an analysis of data from the Chinese National Health Commission, of the first deaths from coronavirus, slightly more than 83% were 65 years of age or older, and 50% had a previous disease.
The suspected diagnosis is given by the symptoms and the patient’s medical history, which collects information on possible direct or indirect contacts with people from the infected areas. To confirm the diagnosis, it is necessary to carry out complementary examinations at the hospital level, both diagnostic by imaging and serological.
The usual treatment will be supportive and the one aimed at alleviating the symptoms. Treatment with antiviral drugs is described.
Currently, several organizations are working on a vaccine, although its use cannot be foreseen before 18 months, according to the WHO. Apart from the isolation, transport, etc. measures that depend on the health authorities, it is of great importance to implement these others:
Avoid the proximity, less than a meter, of people who show symptoms, even if they only have the common cold, including cough and runny nose, especially if the symptoms are severe (pneumonia). Cover your mouth with a tissue or forearm in case of cough or sneeze. Frequently wash your hands with soap and water, rubbing them for at least 20 seconds.
Avoid putting your hands to your eyes, nose or mouth without washing them previously, with the dual purpose of avoiding contagion and the spread of the virus. If possible, use an alcohol-based antiseptic solution to spread it on the hands. The use of mask covers, according to the WHO, is considered a measure by itself insufficient to protect from the transmission of respiratory infections, and promotes fear and discrimination of people.